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Chicago Manual of Style -- Notes and Bibliography

Basic structure of a note

     A footnote or an endnote generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication. These elements are separated by commas.

      Beginning with numbers corresponding to superscript note reference numbers in the text, notes run like a full paragraph, with the numbers in full size ( not raised /not superscripts as in the text) and authors' names in normal order. Pay attention to every detail in the following structure and example, including letter case, italicization, punctuation, space, .

 For books:

          Number. Author(s), Book Title  (Location: Publisher, Year), page number.

         1. Cheryl Strayed, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), 87-88.

For articles:

        Number. Author(s), "Article Title," Journal Title Volume number, Issue number (date): page number.

       1. Benjamin Bagley, "Loving Someone in particular," Ethics 125, no. 2 (January 2015): 484-85.

        The terms "editor/edited by", "translator / translated by", "volume", and "edition" are abbreviated. See more examples in "Books".

Multiple citations / Several citations in one note

        A single note can contain two or more citations, which are separated by semicolons. (If the cited authors' names appear in the text,  the citations in the note must appear in the same order as in the text.)

♦        1. Frank Costigliola, ‘Unceasing Pressure for Penetration’: Gender, Pathology, and Emotion in
George Kennan’s  Formation of the Cold War,
Journal of American History 83,no.4 (March 1997):130939; 
Robert D.Dean, Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (Amherst: University
of Massachusetts Press

Cross reference

          When the content of a note is cited more than once in the text, a new note number should be given each time
and the content must be repeated. In this case, a cross-reference may be used to avoid the same long note.

♦         18. See note 3 above.


Last Updated: Sep 25, 2020 10:15 AM