Skip to Main Content

APA Style Guide

Reports & Gray Literature

Reports and gray literature include reports published by government and non-government agencies, position papers, fact sheets, and informational brochures. Because of the wide variety of items that fall under "gray literature," the citation format can differ as well.

Basic report format:

Organization Name. (Year). Title of report. URL

Basic gray literature format:

Organization Name. (Year). Title [format description]. URL

Reports Examples

Government Agency Example:

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Reports with Individual Authors:

Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council.

Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

White Papers Examples

White Paper with a Group Author:

Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2016). Success as a knowledge economy: Teaching excellent, social mobility and student choice [White paper]. Crown.

White Paper with Individual Authors:

Furst, M., & DeMillo, R. A. (2006). Creating symphonic-thinking computer science graduates for an increasingly competitive global environment [White paper]. Georgia Tech College of Computing.

Gray Literature Examples

Brochure Example:

Cedars-Sinai. (2015). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancer [Brochure].

Fact Sheet Example:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (n.d.). Asbestos in your environment: What you can do to limit exposure [Fact sheet]. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017). Nursing shortage fact sheet [Fact sheet].

Press Release Example: 

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, November 15). FDA approves first contact lens indicated to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children [Press release].

Last Updated: Feb 20, 2023 1:38 PM