In-text citations require the author(s) or author group and year of publication.
Basic In-Text Citation Styles:
(Brown & Jones, 2020)
Three or more authors
(Miller et al., 2020)
Group author with abbreviation
First citation: (Society for Classical Studies [SCS], 2020)
Subsequent citations: (SCS, 2020)
Group author without abbreviation
(Harvard University, 2020)
(Environmental Protection Agency, n.d.)
Source within a source
(O'Hare, 1952, as cited in Nice et al., 2010)
Specific part of a source, such as a page number or range, table, paragraph, chapter, etc.
(APA, 2020, p. 264)
(L. Wang, personal communication, February 24, 2019)
Work that has been translated, reprinted, republished, or reissued after the year it was originally published.
When repeating an in-text citation, it is necessary to include both the last name(s) and year; except within the same paragraph—in that case, it is only necessary to repeat the author's(s) name(s).
The abbreviation "ibid" is NEVER used in APA Style.
If the date is part of the narrative, it is not necessary to include it in parentheses.
Put multiple citations in alphabetical order and separate them with semicolons.
If the author is unknown, use the title in place of the author.
Include additional information in the citation when different sources would otherwise have identical citations:
Include additional author(s) when the first two are identical: Lee, Li, Liu et al. (2017) and Lee, Li, Zhang, et al. (2017)
For works by the same author(s) in the same year, include a lower case letter starting with a, b, etc. after the year (also include this in your reference citation): Ali and James (2019a) and Ali and James (2019b) state . . .
When different authors have the same surname, include their initials: (E. Smith, 2014; S. Smith and A. Watts, 2018). If different authors have the same surname and initials, use the standard author–date format.