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APA Style Guide

Audiovisual Media Definition

Audiovisual media are any works primarily visual and/or audio. 

Basic Audiovisual Media Citation:

Author, A. A. (Author title). (Date or date range). Title of work [Type of media]. Publisher. URL

Type of Media Author to Include / Author Title
Film Director
TV Series Executive producer(s)
TV Series Episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer(s)
Podcast Episode Host
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online Streaming Video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer

Video Examples

Film Example:

Singleton, J. (Director). (1991). Boyz n the hood [Film]. Columbia Pictures. 

Sang-ho, Y. (Director). (2016). Busanhaeng [Train to Busan] [Film]. Next Entertainment World; RedPeter Film. 

TV Series Example:

del Pilar Fernández, M. (Executive Producer). (1999–2001). Yo soy Betty, la fea [I am Betty, the ugly one] [TV series]. Radio Cadena Nacional. 

TV Episode Example:

Allegri, N. (Writer), Campbell, J. (Writer), & Herpich, T. (Writer), Cross, N. (Art Director), Alvarez, R. (Director), Leichliter, L. (Director), Houchins, E. (Director), Bruce, K. (Animation Director), & Cash, N. (Supervising Director). (2014, November 7). The unknown (Season 1, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In P. McHale, J. Pelphrey, C. Lelash, B. A. Miller, & Rob Sorcher (Executive Producers), Over the garden wall. Cartoon Network Studios. 

Webinar Example:

Colon-Rivera, H. (2019, January 29). Telepsychiatry's role in medication assisted treatment [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association.

Online Streaming Video Examples:

Stevens, M. [Vsauce]. (2012, August 18). What if everyone jumped at once? [Video]. YouTube.

TED. (2016, February 1). This is what happens when you reply to spam email | James Veitch [Video]. YouTube.

Waititi, T. (2010, October). Why humor is key to creativity [Video]. TEDxDoha.

Audio Examples

Podcast Series Example:

Koenig, S. (Host). (2014–present). Serial [Audio podcast]. This American Life.

Podcast Episode Example:

Jamali, L. (Host). (2020, January 21). A victory for homeless 'Moms 4 Housing' in Oakland [Audio podcast episode]. In The California Report. KQED.

Classical Music Album Example:

Beethoven, L. van. (2002). 3 sonatas for flute and piano [Album recorded by F. Pagnini and S. Malferrari]. Nuevo Era. (Original work published 1802)

Classical Music Song Example:

Strauss, R. (2005). Also sprach Zarathustra [Song recorded by London Philharmonic Orchestra]. On Richard Strauss: Also sprach Zarathustra, Don Juan, four last songs. EMI Classics. (Original work published 1896)

Modern Music Album Example:

Bellafonte, H. (1956). Calypso [Album]. RCA Victor. 

Modern Music Song Example:

Modest Mouse. (2004). Float on [Song]. On Good news for people who love bad news. Epic. 

Audio Recording:

Gifford, W. S., & Murray, E. P. (1927, January 7). First transatlantic telephone call [Audio recording]. History.

Art Examples

Include the medium in brackets after the title, e.g. photograph, painting, infographic, map, etc. If the work is untitled, include a brief description in brackets where the title would be. 

Artwork Example:

Magritte, R. (1929). La Trahison des images [The treachery of images] [Painting]. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Photograph Examples:

Boutke, M. (1946). Ghandi and the Spinning Wheel [Photograph]. Life.

Taal volcano - 12 January 2020 [Photograph]. (2020, January 12). Wikimedia Commons.

Map Example:

Paxton, B. N. (1935). Map of Cherokee Drift Mining Co.'s under-ground workings, Cherokee, Butte County, California [Map]. Cherokee Drift Mining Co.

Last Updated: Jan 17, 2024 10:39 AM