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APSA style manual for political science

Author-date citation

A citation usually requires only the last name of the
author(s), year of publication (n.d. if it is forthcoming), and (sometimes)
page or chapter numbers.(p 17) . No comma separates the two

One author 

          -- “The transmogrifying of mayoral power” (Bailey 1987)

         -- Trish (1988) sharply disagrees. (If the author's name is mentioned in
                                the sentence, the date alone is sufficient in the parenthesis..

Two or three authors

        -- (Kelly, Colter, and Lane 1980)

Four or more authors             

       -- (Angel et al. 1986)

If two or more authors have the same last name, a first initial should be
used to distinguish between them:

      -- (B. Ripley 1988; R. Ripley 1964)



Some special cases

      When more than one study is cited, arrange the references
in alphabetical order and separate them with semicolons or
semicolons and commas, as necessary:

       -- (Confucius 1951; Gurdjieff 1950; Wanisaburo 1926)

       -- (Confucius 1951; see also Gurdjieff 1950, Wanisaburo 1926, and Zeller 1914)

Older Works For reprints, both original and reprint dates should be given.

       -- (Marx and Engels [1933] 1964, 25)


       -- (Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 2.40.2-3)

Legal citations

       -- (Baker v. Carr 1962)

       -- (Budget and Impoundment Act 1987)

Electronic Sources In-text citations of Internet sites should be formatted
to be as similar to normal articles or books references as possible. Citations
should include the names of the author(s) and the year of publication, if available.

        --(Bruckman 1994)

        -- (King, Tomz, and Wittenberg 1998)

Last Updated: Aug 24, 2020 9:59 AM