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Chicago Manual of Style  

Last Updated: Nov 27, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

What is Chicago Style? Print Page

Two forms of Chicago Style

Here is a brief introduction to the basic forms of two systems (see the middle boxes):

 (1) author-date references
     (parenthetical text citation) and
      reference lists

 (2) notes (footnotes/endnotes) and 

Click the tabs above for more examples.


Author-date reference system

• Text Citations 

• Reference Lists 

    Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author's last name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Click on Parenthetical citation for examples.

    Full details appear in the reference list---usually titled "References" or "Works cited"---in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author's name ( Chicago Manual of Style, page 787).


Notes and Bibliography System

• Notes: Footnotes/Endnotes

• Bibliography

Notes – Where do they go?

•May be placed at the bottom of the page to which the note applies --- Footnotes
•Or may be placed at the end of the text.  Use a separate sheet titled “Notes” and list notes in numerical order corresponding to superscripted notes  in text --- Endnotes
Notes – What is their structure ?
•If there is a bibliography that includes all works cited in the notes, a shortened citation is recommended to avoid duplication. 
•If there is no bibliography or only a selected list, then notes must be in the full citation format.
Bibliography -- elements of the entry
•Author(s); title; editor, compiler or translator; edition; volume; series title; facts of publication; pages; DOI or URL
•If you are not sure, use library catalog or WorldCat to help you identify the elements for books; for journal articles, use databses.

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