Various health status, health conditions, health-related behaviors, health care access and health insurance coverage information. Gender, age, race/ethnicity, urban/rural and other descriptors. The files are available in a variety of data formats, including SAS, SPSS, and STATA data formats.
The CDC is listed on the Getting Started tab. These are deeper links--closer to the data; hopefully you won't waste as much time looking for the datasets.
Access to over 50 datasets on priority health topics including mortality and burden of diseases, the Millennium Development Goals (child nutrition, child health, maternal and reproductive health, immunization, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected diseases, water and sanitation), non communicable diseases and risk factors, epidemic-prone diseases, health systems, environmental health, violence and injuries, equity among others.
Many of the same statistics you will find elsewhere, but clearly organized so sleuthing for a topic may be productive at this site. Note the "Health Data Tools & Statistics" link in the left column under topics.
The Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) is a data catalog created and supported by The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) is an independent global health research center at the University of Washington.