Skip to main content

MLA Style Guide

Official MLA Style, 2016

About the 8th ed.

MLA Handbook, Eighth edition 2 NORTH Reference LB2369 .G53 2016

MLA has changed. The focus of this revised style is on the reader or audience. Citations no longer interrupt the flow of the text and are so much easier to decipher when you want to follow up on an idea.

Ask your professor which edition is recommended or required for your Works Cited page. Not all will be aware that the rules have changed.

Core Elements in the 8th ed.

MLA identifies the core elements for a citation. Not all may apply. Note the punctuation with each element.

  • Author.
  • Title. (for book or stand-alone) or "Title" (for part of a whole series, collection)
  • Title of the Source or Container,
  • Other contributors (illustrated by, translated by, edited by, etc.),
  • Version (edition, revised, abridged, etc.),
  • Number (volume and/or issue),
  • Publisher,
  • Publication date,
  • Location (pages or site of performance, not publishers location).

In-Text Citations

In-text citations are inserted in the body of the paper and refer readers to the complete citation in the Works Cited list.

Works Cited, 8th edition

JOURNAL ARTICLES (periodical articles published in journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.)

Format: Author's last name, first name or initials as published. "Title of Article." Periodical Title, volume number, issue number, date of publication, page numbers. Include a doi or permanent link if available.

Corresponding pages or sections in  MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition are noted in square brackets [ ]. 

Note: Use the author name as given in the source, either full name or initials; list authors in same order as published.

  • One Author  [21]

    Witschi, Nicolas. "John of the Mines: Muir's Picturesque Rewrite of the Gold Rush." Western

              American Literature,
    vol. 34, no. 3, Aug. 1999, pp. 316-343.

  • Two Authors   [21]

    Klimoski, Richard, and Susan Palmer. "The ADA and the Hiring Process in Organizations."

              Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, vol. 45, no. 2, Feb. 1993, pp. 10-36. doi: 10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10.

  • Three or More Authors   [22]

    Wolchik, Sharlene A., et al. "An Experimental Evaluation of Theory-Based Mother and

              Mother-Child Programs for Children of Divorce." Journal of Consulting and Clinical

              Psychology,
    vol. 68, no. 5, Oct. 2000, pp. 843-856.

  • Magazine Article (weekly or every 2 week)   [1.5]

    Acocella, Joan. "Dance Man." New Yorker, vol. 79, no. 38, 8 Dec. 2003: pp. 102-3.

  • Book Review   [29]

    Schatz, Bruce R. "Learning by Text or Context?" Review of The Social Life of Information,

              by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid. Science, vol. 290, no. 5495, 17 Nov. 2000, p. 1304.

  • Daily Newspaper Article  (For non-consecutive pages, use the first page with a +.) [2.5.1]

    Kisselgoff, Anna. "Still the Radical in Classical Garb." New York Times, 2 Jan. 2004, east coast

              late ed., p. E1+.

  • Entire Issue   [1.5]

    O'Hara, Daniel T., ed. "Global Freud: Psychoanalytical Cultures and Classic Modernism."

              Special issue of Journal of Modern Literature , vol. 25, no. 3-4, Summer 2002, pp. 1-152.

  • Interview (each issue is numbered and called "issue.") [40]

     Hastings, Michael. “Julian Assange: The Rolling Stone Interview.” Rolling Stone,  issue 1149, 2 Feb. 2012, pp. 50-71.

Books and Other Sources

One Author  [21]

Mazzotta, Giuseppe. Dante, Poet of the Desert: History and Allegory in the Divine Comedy. Princeton UP, 1979.

Leiter, Samuel L., editor. Encyclopedia of Asian Theatre. Greenwood, 2006.

Two Authors  [21]

Santelli, Robert, and Emily Davidson. Hard Travelin': The Life and Legacy of Woody Guthrie. Wesleyan UP, 1999.

Three or More Authors or Editors  [22]

Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman, 1985.

Two or More Books by the Same Author  [2.7.2]

 McCausland, Elizabeth. Charles W. Hawthorne, an American Figure Painter. American Artists Group, 1947.

 ---. George Inness, an American Landscape Painter, 1825-1894. American Artists Group, 1946.

 Chapter in an Anthology  [30]

 Harris, Kenton. "No Dance is a Fake." Ethics and the Arts: An Anthology, edited by David E. W. Fenner, Garland, 1995, pp.115-139.

 Anonymous Author  [24]

 New York Public Library Performing Arts Desk Reference. Macmillan,1994.

 Book Review  [29]

 Woodhouse, Mark. Review of Monk Dancers of Tibet, by Mattheiu Ricard. Library Journal, vol.128, no. 19, Nov. 2003, p. 72.

 Book in a Series  [52]

Gutiérrez, Ramón A., and Richard J. Orsi, editors. Contested Eden: California Before the Gold Rush. U of California P, 1998. California History Sesquicentennial Series 1.

 Government Report   [2.1.3]

 United States, Congress, Senate. Senate Art in Stamps. GPO, 2000.

Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation

Palmer, Ben. A Discursive Essay on Edwin Muir and Robert Graves. MA thesis Sacramento State College, 1970. CSUS Theses Collection, Microfiche 009985 Palmer.

 Published Thesis or Dissertation

Spivey, Nancy Nelson. Discourse Synthesis: Constructing Texts in Reading and Writing. Dissertation, U of Texas at Austin, 1983. International Reading Association, 1984.