Here is a brief introduction to the basic forms of two systems (see the middle boxes):
(1) author-date references (parenthetical text citation) and reference lists
(2) notes (footnotes/endnotes) and bibliography
Click the tabs above for more examples.
Author-date reference system
• Text Citations
• Reference Lists
• Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author's last name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Click on Parenthetical citation for examples.
• Full details appear in the reference list---usually titled "References" or "Works cited"---in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author's name (Chicago Manual of Style, page 787).
Notes and Bibliography System
• Notes: Footnotes/Endnotes
Notes – Where do they go?
•May be placed at the bottom of the page to which the note applies --- Footnotes
•Or may be placed at the end of the text. Use a separate sheet titled “Notes” and list notes in numerical order corresponding to superscripted notes in text --- Endnotes
Notes – What is their structure?
•If there is a bibliography that includes all works cited in the notes, a shortened citation is recommended to avoid duplication.
•If there is no bibliography or only a selected list, then notes must be in the full citation format.
Bibliography -- elements of the entry
•Author(s); title; editor, compiler or translator; edition; volume; series title; facts of publication; pages; DOI or URL
•If you are not sure, use library catalog or WorldCat to help you identify the elements for books; for journal articles, use databses.