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APA Style Guide

Citing References

For more information and examples of References, see sections 6.22-6.32 in the 6th ed. Publication Manual:

Begin a new page headed with the word “References” centered at the top.

Use “Reference” if there is only one.

Alphabetize the list by the first author's last name. If no author given, start with the first significant word in the title. [6.25]

Periodical titles should be in italics and written in full with both capital and lower case letters. [6.29]

Italicize the volume number but not the issue number. Include the issue number if each issue starts with page 1. [6.30]

For nonperiodical titles like books and reports, capitalize the first word of the title and subtile and italicize the title. Use parentheses around additional information such as edition or report number following the title. [6.29]

If an article Digital Object Identifier (doi) is noted in the print article, include it. See Electronic References for more information on doi. [6.32]

Double space the entire document. 

References are to be in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented. In Microsoft Office: Word 2007, choose Line spacing> Line spacing options> Indentation> Special> Hanging. In Word 2010, choose Page Layout>Paragraph>Indentation>Special.

Print sources: Periodicals

JOURNAL ARTICLES (periodical articles published in journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.)

Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume (issue), pages. doi: unique identifier

• One Author [6.27] 
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.126.6.910

Note: Include issue number if the journal is paginated separately by issue. [6.30]

• Two to Seven Authors [6.27]
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. doi: 10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10

• Eight or More Authors [7.01.2] 
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., ...Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856. doi:

Note: Include all authors up to and including seven. For eight or more, include the first six, then an ellipsis, followed by the last author's name. [6.27]

• Magazine Article [7.01.7]
 Rodgers, J. (2006, July). Extreme psychology. Psychology Today, 39(4), 86-93.

• Review of a Book [7.06.45] 
Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information, by J.S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304. doi: 10.1126/science.290.5495.1304

• Daily Newspaper Article, No Author [7.01.10]
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, p. A12.

Note: Use p. or pp. before page number. If the article had more than one page but not continuous then the citation would be "pp. A12, A14.

• Letter to the Editor, Newspaper Article [7.01.15] 
Berkowitz, A.D. (2000, November 24). How to tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 47(13), p. B20.

• Entire Issue of a Journal [7.01.12]
 Barlow, D.H. (Ed.). (1991). Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3).

Print sources: Books and reports


Format: Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher. 

• Book [7.02.18] 
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Note: Give the complete location (e.g., city and abbreviated state in the United States) for the publisher. If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is part of the university name, don’t repeat the state in the location information. [6.30] 

• Book by More than One Author [7.02.24] 
Levison, M., Ward, R. G., & Webb, J. W. (1973). The settlement of Polynesia: A computer simulation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

• Edited Book [7.02.22-24] 
Ruiz, V. L., & Korrol, V.S. (Eds.). (2006). Latinas in the United States: A historical encyclopedia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 

• Corporate Author as Publisher [7.02]  
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: When the author is a corporate author and published the book, do not repeat the author name as publisher. 

• Anonymous Author [6.27] 
Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Humanities. 

• Chapter in a Book [7.02.25] 
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek & D.C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

• ERIC Document [7.09.62] 
Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teaching Learning. (ED346082) 

• Government Report [7.03.31]
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

• Dissertation or Thesis [7.05]
Norawong, S. T., & Stephen, A. L. (1999). Stress and the CPS social work environment (Unpublished master's thesis). California State University, Sacramento, Sacramento, CA. 

Note: Copies of theses by California State University, Sacramento students shelved in the Library are considered unpublished.