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The period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century AD to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and on other factors). The term and its conventional meaning were introduced by Italian humanists with invidious intent; the humanists were engaged in a revival of classical learning and culture, and the notion of a thousand-year period of darkness and ignorance separating them from the ancient Greek and Roman world served to highlight the humanists' own work and ideals. In a sense, the humanists invented the Middle Ages in order to distinguish themselves from it. The Middle Ages nonetheless provided the foundation for the transformations of the humanists' own Renaissance."
Middle Ages." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Aug. 6, 2009.
These web pages identify indexes for searching for historical literature, journals and magazines that focus on medieval history and related fields, and reference works dealing with medieval history.
Where Mud Is Archaeological Gold, Russian History Grew on Trees. By David M. Herszenhorn. New York Times. SECTION: Section A; Column 0; Foreign Desk; VELIKY NOVGOROD JOURNAL; Pg. 1 . Available in lEXIS/NEXIS
VELIKY NOVGOROD, Russia -- The note, from father to son, was the sort of routine shopping list that today would be dashed off on a smartphone. In 14th century Russia, it was etched into the bark of a birch tree and curled into a scroll.
''Send me a shirt, towel, trousers, reins, and, for my sister, send fabric,'' the father, whose name was Onus, wrote to his son, Danilo, the block letters of Old Novgorod language, a precursor to Russian, neatly carved into the wood with a stylus. Onus ended with a bit of humor. ''If I am alive,'' he wrote, ''I will pay for it.''
The scroll and a dozen others like it were among the finds from this year's digging season, adding to a collection of more than 1,000 birch-bark documents uncovered here after being preserved for hundreds of years in the magical mud that makes this city one of the most extraordinary archaeological sites on earth. ''Novgorod for Russia is like Pompeii for Italy,'' said Pyotr G. Gaidukov, the deputy director of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Archaeology. ''Only Novgorod is still alive.''
The Vikings’ Bad Boy Reputation Is Back With a Vengeance. Franz Lidz. Smithsonian March 2014, v 44, no. 11 pp 44-51.
A major new exhibition is reviving the Norse seafarers’ iconic image as rampagers and pillagers.
Read more at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/The-Vikings-Bad-Boy-Reputation-Is-Back-With-a-Vengeance-180949814/#6v8AETFdfp8Mz5yj.99
Hidden Grave of History's Greatest Warrior. Oliver Steeds. Newsweek. v. 160, no 24, pp 22-8.
For centuries historians and treasure seekers have searched for the burial site of history's most famous conqueror. New findings offer compelling evidence that it's been found. http://magazine-directory.com/Newsweek.htm